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Uninstaller 2010 is available on the download page for free and you can download without registration.Differential activity of anti-CD40, TNF-alpha, and CXCL8 in the pathogenesis of bullous pemphigoid.
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a chronic autoimmune skin disease characterized by subepidermal blisters. The pathogenesis of this disease is not well understood, and there is no effective therapy for patients with BP. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine that induces many immune responses. Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, a CXC chemokine, is a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils and may be involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory and immune disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathogenic role of TNF-alpha, CINC-1, and CD40 in patients with BP. Skin samples from 7 patients with BP and 7 control patients were used for immunohistochemical staining. TNF-alpha and CINC-1 were expressed mainly in the upper dermis, whereas CD40 was expressed mainly in the epidermis and infiltrating inflammatory cells in the dermis. The number of infiltrating neutrophils correlated significantly with the intensity of expression of TNF-alpha and CINC-1 but not CD40. The activity of both TNF-alpha and CINC-1 was significantly higher in the skin of patients with BP than in the skin of control patients. Patients with BP were successfully treated with systemic glucocorticosteroids, and the levels of TNF-alpha and CINC-1 were dramatically decreased by treatment. The level of CD40 in the skin of patients with